25 Common Network Terms with Short Descriptions
There are hundreds of different network terms and abbreviations. Here are 25 the most popular terms.
Address Resolution Protocol
ARP is a protocol used to determine the MAC address of a computer based on the destination IP address.
A process of verifying the sending and receiving users or action that proves a individual on a network is who he says it says it is.
The process by which an authenticated user is granted access on a network or recourse and determines what the user can or cannot do on the network.
Denial of Service is an attack that floods servers with so many requests that it becomes overwhelmed and make it impossible for users to use them.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a protocol that allows a DHCP server to automatically assign an IP address when a DHCP client connects to a network.
Domain Name System is a name resolution system that translates host names to IP addresses.
A Firewall is a device or software that filters incoming and outgoing network traffic. A Firewall helps to protect networks from external threats.
File Transfer Protocol is the original protocol used on the Internet for transferring files between computers. FTP use TCP ports 20 and 21 by default.
A Home Page can be either the main page in a website or the page that your browser is set to use when it starts up.
An IP Address is a unique numeric address that identifies a computer or host connected to a network. An IP address uses a unique dotted-octet numbering system.
Inbound Rule (Windows Firewall)
Inbound rules help to prevent undesired access to your computer. The rules apply to traffic coming from a network or the internet to your computer.
Intranet is a private network inside a company or organization.
Local Area Network is a relatively small network of computers and devices connected to share resources.
Loopback Address (127.0.0.1)
A special IP Address used for internal testing. When you are doing a loopback test on a device, the device will send the packets to itself.
MAC (Media Access Control) Address
A MAC Address is a unique 48-bit address assigned to network interfaces for communication on the data link layer (Layer 2 of the OSI Model)
A method of translating a IP address into another IP address on a network. NAT replaces the IP address of a computer with the IP address of the router on outgoing traffic. This means that only one unique IP Address is required to connect multiple devices to the internet.
NAT (Network Address Translation)
NAT translates the local IP addresses of devices on a network to one public address, enabling multiple devices to share a single IP address.
Outbound Rules (Windows Firewall)
Outbound rules help to prevent services on your computer to perform certain actions without your knowledge. Outbound rules apply to traffic originated from your computer to a network or the internet.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the main protocol used to send e-mails on the internet.
SMTP uses TCP port 25
Internet Message Access Protocol is one of the two protocols that receive e-mails from a SMTP server
IMAP uses TCP port 143
Post Office Protocol version 3 is a protocol used to receive emails from SMTP servers.
POP3 uses TCP port 110
PING (Packet Internet Groper)
Ping is a ICMP utility used to test network connectivity by sending echo requests to a specified IP Address.
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)
RAID is a data storage technology that is used for data redundancy or performance improvement. 3 Popular RAID levels:
RAID 0: Striping (no fault tolerance)
RAID 1: Mirroring or duplexing.
RAID 5: Striping with parity (Requires at least 3 drives)
RJ-45 (Registered Jack)
A type of connector with 8 wire connections, commonly used for Ethernet networks.
Click here to see Ethernet color coding
A port number is used to identify the requested service. Devices use port numbers to determine to which application a message should be delivered A port number is a 16-bit value between 0 and 65535.
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
PPP is a communication Protocol that enables a direct transport or communication link between two nodes.
PPP enables a computer to connect to the internet through a dial-up connection.
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